The National Economics and Social Development Board of Thailand (NESDB) has been producing the national income and expenditure account since 1967 based on guidelines proposed by the United Nations System of National Accounts,(UNSNA), an international standard system of social accounts. National Account only produces two broad categories of public and private sources on health, and cannot breakdown health expenditure by healthcare functions or types of providers. There are three phases of development of NHA in Thailand.
Phase I - Incubation period - the development of 1994 NHA: The
Health Systems Research Institute commissioned researchers to
develop the NHA in 1993. International Health Policy Program Thailand
(IHPP) by Dr. Viroj Tangcharoenthien has been involved in the
whole process of development since the beginning. NHA Working
Group (WG) led by College of Public Health, Chulalongkorn University,
together with multi-stakeholders developed the first 1994 model
that suited the Thai pluralistic health systems, the 1994 NHA
had implicit three dimensional of financing agents, healthcare
function and type of providers.
Phase II -- Consolidation period - the 1996 and 1998 NHA: NHA matrices for 1996 and 1998 was modified from the OECD Systems of Health Account, to suit the Thai health systems. This phase was commissioned by HSRI, with strong involvements by multi-partners.
Phase III Institutionalization of NHA - NHA1994-2001: As institutionalization is vital for long term sustainable production and updates of the NHA as well as ensure policy uses, IHPP has decided to host NHA in long term, and as national focal point on NHA. IHPP and other partners produced a comprehensive annual series of 1994 to 2001, with sponsor from HSRI, by adaptation OECD Systems of Health Account using three dimensional matrices. As a results, NHA in Thailand is now available for a series of 1994 - 2001.
Moreover IHPP and NESDB diversified NHA to disease account, the National AIDS Account (NAA) was developed with financial supports from UNAIDS. The NAA tracks the total HIV/AIDS expenditures from all sources of finance, including public, private, households and external sources for a four year period from 2000 to 2003 in a two dimensional matrix, Financing Agents and Healthcare Function.
International Health Policy Program Thailand: IHPP-Thailand